The Fadal CPU Boards
Before replacing your boards, consider sending to us for testing. We have the experience and equipment to test the CPU and associated boards. Because of the complicated interactions between boards, what might seem faulty really isn't, when actually it's another board that is the real problem!
Contact us and we can discuss your issues.
The basic design of the Fadal CNC control remained the same throughout production.
The CNC 88 was the early production model, starting around 1983. it contained what was called the 1400-2 system. The CNC 88 name was derived from the CPU chip we were using at the time which was the 8088 Intel Microprocessor.
The other model identification was based mostly on newer pendant designs.
Some thought the 32MP was different that the CNC 88, CNC HS or the CNC MP. The 32MP used the same exact CNC control except a Windows single board computer system as added inside the 32MP pendant. There was a rotary switch on the pendant that could select between CNC and DOS. This selector simply redirected the Video Screen and the Keyboard from the CNC as the source or the Windows computer. On the Windows computer is where the Gibbs software resided for program creation. The two computers were connected only using a high speed serial connection.
Regardless of the pendant design, the CPU Architecture remained the same with only minor differences.
The 1060 "Mother Board" or sometimes called "Backplane" or "Terminal Board" has been compatible throughout time. There were slight modifications added, such as the Resolver Opto-Isolation board for Resolver feedback.
The 1060 board is basically a 8-bit buss that connects all the boards to the CPU board. With the 1400-3 CPU system a external 16-bit buss was added between the 1400, 1030, 1420 boards
The 1060 board provides power and the interconnecting circuitry between the PCBs. The original 1060-0 had 17 slots for PCBs and the current 1060-1A has 14 board slots.
The reduction in slots was done for cost savings since with the newer PCBs the slots were no longer used. Also the new 1060 does not have TB1 and TB2 so if M-Functions are used a M-Function Interface board (1340-0) and cable (WIR1679) are required.
The block diagram is for the 1400-5 model. However, it should be a good reference for all models.
SLOTS 1 to 4
The first two CPU PCBs (1400-1 & 1400-2) could be placed in any of the first five slots but is normally in slot 5. These first slots were used for memory expansion with a Optional Battery Backed Memory Board (1460-0 for 1400-1 & 1460-1 for 1400-2) which contained 128K of RAM. With the 1400-2 up to three of these Memory Boards could be installed. Each memory board needed to be configured with jumpers for the proper segment of memory.
See the Board Jumper Configuration section for details. When Fadal started using a chiller on the coolant for the spindle and ball screws a Chiller Controller Board (now in Slot 3) was added. The Chiller Controller Board (1550) uses the connection to the motherboard for DC voltage inputs but has no signals to the other boards. The Chiller Controller monitors a ambient temperature and one or two coolant temperatures and activates the chiller(s) when temperature difference exceeds a couple of degrees.
This is the Central Processing Unit (CPU) Board (1400) slot. All CPU boards come with 38K of battery backed memory. This memory is used to store the following:
• CNC Part Program
• Tool Data – both Length and Diameter
• Fixture Offset Data
• SETP parameters
The CPU board executes the part program by issuing commands to the other boards and monitors the inputs from the other boards and proceeds as required by program and external information.
The Fadal CPUs are as follows:
• 1400-1 – This was the first CPU, it is very rare, if you have problems with one please call Fadal for assistance.
• 1400-2 – Served many years as the CPU. Can be in any of the first 5 slots however try to keep them in slot 5. Has a Program Module (1610-0) plugged into it, this module provides the operating program for the CPU. For optional memory expansion, memory expansion boards (1460-1) were added in slots 1 to 4. Each board contained 128K.
Up to three memory boards could be added for a total of 422K.
• 1400-3 – This CPU board was an interim CPU between the 1400-2 and the 1400-4. It has to be in slot 5 because of the bus board which connects the Computer Interface Board and the CPU. This CPU uses the Computer Interface for the video signal. This CPU uses the Program Module (1610-1) and the Expanded Memory Boards that plug into the CPU Board. (J4-J5) Up to 422K Expanded Memory total.
• 1400-4 – This CPU board was used for years. It has to be in slot 5 because of the processor bus board which connects the Computer Interface Board (1030), the Video Graphics Board (1420-4) and the CPU. This CPU uses the Video Graphics for the video signal and the graphics.
This CPU uses the Program Module (1610-1) and the Expanded Memory Boards that plug into the CPU Board. (J4-J5) Up to 422K Expanded Memory total.
• 1400-5 - This CPU board is the last CPU. It has to be in slot 5 because of the processor bus board which connects the Computer Interface Board (1030), the Video Graphics Board (1420) and the CPU.
This CPU uses the Video Graphics for the video signal and the graphics.
This CPU uses the Program Module (1610-1) and the Expanded Memory Boards that plug into the CPU Board. (J4-J5) Up to 16MB Expanded Memory total.
Expanded Memory Boards that plug into the CPU Boards at J4 and J5 are as follows:
• 128K Expanded Memory Board (1460-21) PCB-0040
• 384K Expanded Memory Board (1460-22) PCB-0041
• 4MB Expanded Memory Board (1460-34) PCB-0042
• 8MB Expanded Memory Board (1460-38) PCB-0043
• 16MB Expanded Memory Board (1460-316) PCB-0044
If either the Dual Arm Tool Changer (DATC) or the Advanced Feed Forward (AFF) option is installed in the machine then a Option Sec. PCB (1470) PCB0191 will occupy this slot. This board requires a processor bus board connection.
This spot has the Video / Graphics Board (1420-6) installed. It provides Video display storage, Video monitor control, Graphics Display and Video output (J2).
This board is connected to the processor bus board. This slot had a Video Board (1420) for the 1400-1 and 1400-2 CPU boards.
The Computer Interface PCB (1030) provides communication between the CPU and the controller and interface boards. The RS232 communications is also handled by this board. The functions performed by the 1030 are S100 Bus interface, Priority Interrupt and Device Selection.
This board is connected to the processor bus board. During the 1400-3 CPU usage the Computer Interface board provided the Video Signal to the monitor.
Note: HS Processor Interface Board (1730-5 current) connects the 1400, 1470, 1420 and the 1030.
The X-Axis Controller Board (1010) belongs in this slot. Please see Axis Controller Board information section below.
The Y-Axis Controller Board (1010) belongs in this slot. Please see Axis Controller Board information section below.
The Z-Axis Controller Board (1010) belongs in this slot. Please see Axis Controller Board information section below.
The B-Axis Controller Board (1010) belongs in this slot. Please see Axis Controller Board information section below.
The A-Axis Controller Board (1010) belongs in this slot. Please see Axis Controller Board information section below.
Axis Controller Boards
The axis controller boards receive input position, direction and speed commands from the CPU via Computer Interface then outputs commands to the axis amplifier.
The amplifier moves the axis motor and the resolver / tach or encoder provides position and speed information back to the controller board.
The axis controller then uses this information to adjust the outputs to the amplifier to maintain the commanded speed and position.
It also reports back to the CPU with the results. The Axis Controller boards are the same for each axis except for the jumper configuration at J4 position on the board and the EPROMs change from linear travel (X, Y, & Z) to rotary travel (A & B).
The J4 jumpers determine the axis travel for that board. It is very important that the jumpers are set correctly.
Refer to the Board Jumper Configuration section for proper configuration.
The Axis Controller boards store and use the ballscrew compensation, amplifier gain and position offset information.
The position offset information is used for cold start position, for DC machine this would be zero unless glass scale option and for AC machine either the encode or glass scale.
There have been several versions of the Axis Controller board:
• 1010-1 has one program EPROM and one Tab EPROM (ballscrew compensation)
• 1010-4 has two program EPROMs U7 & U10 and comp., gain & offset are stored in EEPROM
• 1010-5 has two program EPROMs U15 & U18 and comp., gain & offset are stored in EEPROM
• 1010-6 has two program EPROMs U15 & U18 and comp., gain & offset are stored in EEPROM
Each version of the Axis Controller board requires its own software.
The –5 & -6 versions use the same software. For the current proper software version for any board refer to the “Fadal Machining Centers Current Software” listing.
This listing is published periodically and can be obtained by request.
The connections for the axis controller boards are: J1 – Signal 2 output, J2 – Resolver signal input, J3 – not used, J5 – Encoder input and J6 – Optional scale input. Not all of these connections are used on each machine.
The feedback to the Axis Controller boards for a DC machine is as follows:
The tach outputs a DC voltage to represent a speed in RPMs that is 7 VDC per 1000 RPM. A resolver is used to feedback the position. The resolver has two input signals generated by the Clock Board, they are called SIN and COS and are 10 VAC peak to peak (about 3.54 VAC on a meter). The resolver uses these two to generate a third signal, Resolver signal is 5 VAC peak to peak (about 1.77 VAC on a meter). Each Axis Controller board receives the resolver signal
at J2 bullet connector. This voltage can be checked at this point the voltage must very close or there may be a problem with it. The controller compares the SIN and resolver signals to determine the position.
The Resolver Board (1060-0-1) PCB-0010 isolates the SIN and COS signals from the clock Board and distributes them to each axis. The result is that the machine can determine the axis at fault. If the motherboard has J14 and there is a DC axis then either a Resolver Test board or a Resolver Jumper board (1060-0-0) is required.
The feedback to the Axis Controller boards for a AC machine is as follows:
An incremental encoder provides position information from the motor. It operates with light source through a focus lens through rotating glass disk with precision etched lines through a light mask to two photoelectric cells offset 90 degrees from each other. This creates 5 volt square waves A,/A,B,/B. A and /A are 180 degrees out of phase as well as B and /B are 180 degrees out of phase. A and B are 90 degrees out of phase, by counting the pulses the position can be determined and the direction is determined by is A or B the first signal.
This information is sent to the controller board. The 3 phase input from the hall effect (U,V,W) returns the rotor position feedback for the amplifier to compensate the magnetic fields to optimize the motor operation. The motor has a temperature sensor to detect over temperature in the motor, information is returned in the hall effect cable. The amplifier sends a Absolute Current signal to J3 on the controller board. This signal is 1 volt for every 4 amperes output by the amplifier. The amplifier provides test points, they are: Signal – is a 1:2 output of the differential signal + & - input, Tach – a scaling output of 4 volts per 1000 RPM created by the amp from the encoder information, ABS – the current output to all 3 phases. Scaling is 1 volt per 4 amperes.
The Spindle Controller Board (1010) is a 1010 controller board but is NOT interchangeable with the axis controller because different components are installed on the board. An exception is the 1010-6 which has jumpers for both axis and spindle controller configurations. The Spindle Controller board must have spindle jumper configuration and the proper spindle software. The Spindle Controller sends the spindle forward and reverses signals to the 1100-2 board and the speed command directly to the spindle drive. Encoder information is fed back to the controller for rigid tapping, this provides spindle position to coordinate Z axis with spindle. A 1010-1 can not be used as a rigid tapping spindle controller.
The Clock Board (1020) generates the system clock signals used for feedrate control and Sine / Cosine signals to the resolver to be used for position feedback. The feedrate override control pot signal is input at J1.
The M-Function Board (1050) is used when more than the five standard MFunctions is required or when a return signal is required. Please refer to detailed section (Section 09 Attached Optional Devices – M-Function Board use and setup).
The Mill Interface Board (1040) interfaces the control to the relays, switches, sensors and keyboard. It takes the CPU commands and activates the relays to perform the commanded task. Reads the sensors, switches and keyboard and sends the information to the CPU via Computer Interface Board.
Boards Outside the Motherboard
- The Power Distribution and Relay PCB 1100-1 has inputs of 120VAC, 5VDC and the control signals. The control signals used by the 1100-2 board arerouted to another connector and go to the 1100-2 board. The control signals from the Mill Interface (1040) activate relays when required by pulling the control line low or about zero volts. This board has the Emergency Stop relays K1 & K2, high & low range, coolant pumps, Amplifier control, M-functions and power to the pendant.
- The Power Distribution and Relay PCB 1100-2 has inputs of 120VAC, 5VDC and the control signals. The control signals from the Mill Interface (1040) and Spindle Controller (1010) activate relays when required by pulling the control line low or about zero volts. This board has the spindle forward & reverse signals, ATC controls, Drawbar, Orientation and way-lube.
- The Keyboard Interface Board 1090 receives inputs from the Keyboard, Manual Pulse Generator (MPG), Remote MPG (optional), optional stop, block skip, rapid travel, Resolution, axis selection, emergency stop, keylock, slide hold and start switches codes and sends the information to the Mill Interface (1040) board. Also takes the feedrate pot input and sends it to the clock board and the spindle pot input and sends it to the Spindle Controller board.